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This book is one that's worth more than whatever you'll pay for whatever version/s you get it in. It's written exceptionally well and packed full of highly actionable habit building (and breaking) methods. A timeless book that should be read and then re-read at least once each year.
...changes that seem small and unimportant at first will compound into remarkable results if you're willing to stick with them for years. We all deal with setbacks but in the long run, the quality of our lives often depends on the quality of our habits.
...Naval Ravikant has said, "To write a great book, you must first become the book."
...if you can get 1 percent better each day for one year, you'll end up thirty-seven times better by the time you're done.
What starts as a small win or a minor setback accumulates into something much more.
Habits are the compound interest of self-improvement.
Breakthrough moments are often the result of many previous actions, which build up the potential required to unleash a major change.
...habits often appear to make no difference until you cross a critical threshold and unlock a new level of performance.
...the most powerful outcomes are delayed.
If you find yourself struggling to build a good habit or break a bad one, it is not because you have lost your ability to improve. It is often because you have not yet crossed the Plateau of Latent Potential.
All big things come from small beginnings. The seed of every habit is a single, tiny decision. But as that decision is repeated, a habit sprouts and grows stronger.
Forget About Goals, Focus On Systems Instead
Goals are about the results you want to achieve. Systems are about the processes that lead to those results.
Goals are good for setting a direction, but systems are best for making progress.
True long-term thinking is goal-less thinking. It's not about any single accomplishment. It is about the cycle of endless refinement and continuous improvement. Ultimately, it is your commitment to the process that will determine your progress.
You do not rise to the level of your goals. You fall to the level of your systems.
...atomic habits—a regular practice or routine that is not only small and easy to do, but also the source of incredible power; a component of the system of compound growth.
Changing our habits is challenging for two reasons: (1) we try to change the wrong thing and (2) we try to change our habits in the wrong way.
Our first mistake is that we try to change the wrong thing. To understand what I mean, consider that there are three levels at which change can occur. You can imagine them like the layers of an onion.
The first layer is changing your outcomes. This level is concerned with changing your results.
The second layer is changing your process. This level is concerned with changing your habits and systems.
The third and deepest layer is changing your identity. This level is concerned with changing your beliefs.
Outcomes are about what you get. Processes are about what you do. Identity is about what you believe.
Many people begin the process of changing their habits by focusing on what they want to achieve. This leads us to outcome-based habits. The alternative is to build identity-based habits. With this approach, we start by focusing on who we wish to become.
They never shift the way they look at themselves, and they don't realize that their old identity can sabotage their new plans for change.
Behavior that is incongruent with the self will not last. You may want more money, but if your identity is someone who consumes rather than creates, then you'll continue to be pulled toward spending rather than earning.
The ultimate form of intrinsic motivation is when a habit becomes part of your identity.
The more pride you have in a particular aspect of your identity, the more motivated you will be to maintain the habits associated with it.
True behavior change is identity change.
...if you don't shift the belief behind the behavior, then it is hard to stick with long-term changes. Improvements are only temporary until they become part of who you are.
- The goal is not to read a book, the goal is to become a reader.
- The goal is not to run a marathon, the goal is to become a runner.
- The goal is not to learn an instrument, the goal is to become a musician.
Your behaviors are usually a reflection of your identity. What you do is an indication of the type of person you believe that you are—either consciously or nonconsciously. Research has shown that once a person believes in a particular aspect of their identity, they are more likely to act in alignment with that belief.
Many people walk through life in a cognitive slumber, blindly following the norms attached to their identity.
...you can't get too attached to one version of your identity. Progress requires unlearning. Becoming the best version of yourself requires you to continuously edit your beliefs, and to upgrade and expand your identity.
Your identity emerges out of your habits. You are not born with preset beliefs. Every belief, including those about yourself, is learned and conditioned through experience.
The more you repeat a behavior, the more you reinforce the identity associated with that behavior.
Every action you take is a vote for the type of person you wish to become.
...meaningful change does not require radical change. Small habits can make a meaningful difference by providing evidence of a new identity. And if change is meaningful, it actually is big. That's the paradox of making small improvements.
The most practical way to change who you are is to change what you do.
- Each time you write a page, you are a writer.
- Each time you practice the violin, you are a musician.
- Each time you start a workout, you are an athlete.
- Each time you encourage your employees, you are a leader.
New identities require new evidence. If you keep casting the same votes you've always cast, you're going to get the same results you've always had. If nothing changes, nothing is going to change. It is a simple two-step process:
- Decide the type of person you want to be.
- Prove it to yourself with small wins.
Your habits shape your identity, and your identity shapes your habits. It's a two-way street. The formation of all habits is a feedback loop...but it's important to let your values, principles, and identity drive the loop rather than your results. The focus should always be on becoming that type of person, not getting a particular outcome.
You need to know who you want to be. Otherwise, your quest for change is like a boat without a rudder.
Ultimately, your habits matter because they help you become the type of person you wish to be. They are the channel through which you develop your deepest beliefs about yourself. Quite literally, you become your habits.
A habit is a behavior that has been repeated enough times to become automatic.
Whenever you face a problem repeatedly, your brain begins to automate the process of solving it. Your habits are just a series of automatic solutions that solve the problems and stresses you face regularly. As behavioral scientist Jason Hreha writes, "Habits are, simply, reliable solutions to recurring problems in our environment.
As habits are create, the level of activity in the brain decreases. You learn to lock in on the cues that predict success and tune out everything else. When a similar situation arises in the future, you know exactly what to look for. There is no longer a need to analyze every angle of a situation. Your brain skips the process of trial and error and creates a mental rule: if this, then that. These cognitive scripts can be followed automatically whenever the situation is appropriate.
Habit formation is incredibly useful because the conscious mind is the bottleneck of the brain. It can only pay attention to one problem at a time. As a result, your brain is always working to preserve your conscious attention for whatever task is most essential.
Building habits in the present allows you to do more of what you want in the future.
The process of building a habit can be divided into four simple steps: cue, craving, response, and reward.
The cue triggers your brain to initiate a behavior. It is a bit of information that predicts a reward.
Cravings are the second step, and they are the motivational force behind every habit. Without some level of motivation or desire—without craving a change—we have no reason to act. What you crave is not the habit itself but the change in state it delivers.
The third step is the response. The response is the actual habit you perform, which can take the form of a thought or an action. Whether a response occurs depends on how motivated you are and how much friction is associate with the behavior. If a particular action requires more physical or mental effort than you are willing to expend, then you won't do it. Your response also depends on you ability.
Finally, the response delivers a reward. Rewards are the end goal of every habit. The cue is about noticing the reward. The craving is about wanting the reward. The response is about obtaining the reward. We chase rewards because they serve two purposes: (1) they satisfy us and (2) they teach us.
The first purpose of rewards is to satisfy your craving.
Second, rewards teach us which actions are worth remembering in the future.
If a behavior is insufficient in any of the four stages, it will not become a habit.
...the cue triggers a craving, which motivates a response, which provides a reward, which satisfies the craving and, ultimately, becomes associated with the cue. Together, these four steps form a neurological feedback loop—cue, craving, response, reward; cue, craving, response, reward—that ultimately allows you to create automatic habits. This cycle is known as the habit loop.
All behavior is driven by the desire to solve a problem.
You can think of each law as a lever that influences human behavior. When the levers are in the right positions, creating good habits is effortless. When they are in the wrong positions, it is nearly impossible.
Whenever you want to change your behavior, you can simply ask yourself:
- How can I make it obvious?
- How can I make it attractive?
- How can I make it easy?
- How can I make it satisfying?
Every goal is doomed to fail if it goes against the grain of human nature.
Your habits are shaped by the systems in your life.
As the psychologist Carl Jung said, "Until you make the unconscious conscious, it will direct your life and you will call it fate."
...Pointing-and-Calling, is a safety system designed to reduce mistakes. It seems silly, but it works incredibly well. Pointing-and-Calling reduces errors by up to 85 percent and cuts accidents by 30 percent.
Pointing-and-Calling is so effective because it raises the level of awareness from a nonconscious habit to a more conscious level.
The more automatic a behavior becomes, the less likely we are to consciously think about it. And when we've done something a thousand times before, we begin to overlook things. We assume that the next time will be just like the last. We're so used to doing what we've always done that we don't stop to question whether it's the right thing to do at all. Many of our failures in performance are largely attributable to a lack of self-awareness.
...the Habits Scorecard, which is a simple exercise you can use to become more aware of your behavior. To create your own, make a list of your daily habits.
Once you have a full list, look at each behavior, and ask yourself, "Is this a good habit, a bad habit, or a neutral habit?" If it is a good habit, write "+" next to it. If it is a bad habit, write "-". If it is a neutral habit, write "=".
For this exercise, categorize your habits by how they will benefit you in the long run.
...an implementation intention, which is a plan you make beforehand about when and where to act.
Broadly speaking, the format for creating an implementation intention is: "When situation X arises, I will perform response Y."
...people who make a specific plan for when and where they will perform a new habit are more likely to follow through.
Many people think they lack motivation when what they really lack is clarity. It is not always obvious when and where to take action. Some people spend their entire lives waiting for the time to be right to make an improvement.
The simple way to apply this strategy to you habits is to fill out this sentence: I will [BEHAVIOR] at [TIME] in [LOCATION].
You often decide what to do next based on what you have just finished doing.
When it comes to building new habits, you can use the connected-ness of behavior to you advantage. One of the best ways to build a new habit is to identify a current habit you already do each day and then stack your new behavior on top. This called habit stacking.
The habit stacking formula is: "After [CURRENT HABIT], I will [NEW HABIT]."
The key is to tie your desired behavior into something you already do each day. Once you have mastered this basic structure, you can begin to create larger stacks by chaining small habits together. This allow you to take advantage of the natural momentum that comes from one behavior leading into the next...
Your cue should also have the same frequency as your desired habit. If you want to do a habit every day, but you stack it on top of a habit that only happens on Monday, that's not a good choice.
Habits like "read more" or "eat better" are worthy causes, but these goals do not provide instruction on how and when to act. Be specific and clear.
The 1st Law of Behavior Change is to make it obvious. Strategies like implementation intentions and habit stacking are among the most practical ways to create obvious cues for your habits and design a clear plan for when and where to take action.
Your habits change depending on the room you are in and the cues in front of you.
Environment is the invisible hand that shapes human behavior.
The more obviously available a product or service is, the more likely you are to try it.
Given that we are more dependent on vision than on any other sense, it should come as no surprise that visual cues are the greatest catalyst of our behavior. For this reason, a small change in what you see can lead to a big shift in what you do. As a result, you can imagine how important it is to live and work in environments that are filled with productive cues and devoid of unproductive ones.
Every habit is initiated by a cue, and we are more likely to notice cues that stand out.
...crating obvious visual cues can draw your attention toward a desired habit.
If you want to make a habit a big part of your life, make the cue a big part of your environment. The most persistent behaviors usually have multiple cues.
By sprinkling triggers throughout your surrounding, you increase the odds that you'll think about your habit throughout the day. Make sure the best choice is the most obvious one. Making a better decision is easy and natural when the cues for good habits are right in front of you.
Environment design allows you to take back control and become the architect of your life. Be the designer of your world and not merely the consumer of it.
The cues that trigger a habit can start out very specific, but over time your habits become associate not with a single trigger but with the entire context surrounding the behavior.
We mentally assign our habits to the locations in which they occur: the home, the office, the gym. Each location develops a connection to certain habits and routines.
You can train yourself to link a particular habit with a particular context.
The power of context also reveals an important strategy: habits can be easier to change in a new environment.
It is easier to associate a new habit with a new context than to build a new habit in the face of competing cues.
Want to think more creatively? Move to a bigger room, a rooftop patio, or a building with expansive architecture. Take a break from the space where you do your daily work, which is also linked to your current through patters.
When you can't manage to get to an entirely new environment, redefine or rearrange your current one. Create a separate space for work, study, exercise, entertainment, and cooking. The mantra I find useful is "One space, one use."
Whenever possible, avoid mixing the context of one habit with another. When you start mixing contexts, you'll start mixing habits—and the easier ones will usually win out.
If your space is limited, divide your room into activity zones: a chair for reading, a desk for writing, a table for eating. You can do the same with your digital spaces. I know a writer who uses his computer only for writing, his tablet only for reading, and his phone only for social media and texting. Every habit should have a home.
Habits thrive under predictable circumstances like these. Focus comes automatically when you are sitting at your work desk. Relaxation is easier when you are in a space designed for that purpose. Sleep comes quickly when it is the only thing that happens in your bedroom. If you want behaviors that are stable and predictable, you need an environment that is stable and predictable.
A stable environment where everything has a place and a purpose is an environment where habits can easily form.
..."discipline" people are better at structuring their lives in a way that does not require heroic willpower and self-control. In other words, they spend less time in tempting situations.
...perseverance, grit, and willpower are essential to success, but the way to improve these qualities is not by wishing you were a more disciplined person, but by creating a more disciplined environment.
Bad habits are autocatalytic: the process feeds itself.
Watching television makes you feel sluggish, so you watch more television because you don't have the energy to do anything else.
Researchers refer to this phenomenon as "cue-induced wanting": an external trigger causes a compulsive craving to repeat a bad habit.
...cut bad habits off at the source. One of the most practical ways to eliminate a bad habit is to reduce exposure to the cue that causes it.
This practice is an inversion fo the 1st Law of Behavior Change. Rather than make it obvious, you can make it invisible.
Remove a single cue and the entire habit often fades away.
...the secret to self-control. Make the cues of your good habits obvious and the cues of your bad habits invisible.
If you want to increase the odds that a behavior will occur, then you need to make it attractive.
...dopamine is released not only when you experience pleasure, but also when anticipate it.
Whenever you predict that an opportunity will be rewarding, your levels of dopamine spike in anticipation. And whenever dopamine rises, so does your motivation to act.
It is the anticipation of a reward—not the fulfillment of it—that gets us to take action.
We need to make our habits attractive because it is the expectation of a rewarding experience that motivates us to act in the first place. This is where a strategy known as temptation bundling comes into play.
You're more likely to find a behavior attractive if you get to do one of your favorite things at the same time.
...Premack's Principle...states that "more probable behaviors will reinforce less probable behaviors." In other words, even if you don't really want to process overdue work emails, you'll become conditioned to do it if it means you get to do something you really want to do along the way.
The habit stacking + temptation bundling formula is:
- After [CURRENT HABIT], I will [HABIT I NEED].
- After [HABIT I NEED], I will [HABIT I WANT].
Temptation bundling is one way to create a heightened version of any habit buy connecting it with something you already want. Engineering a truly irresistible habit is a hard task, but this simple strategy can be employed to make nearly any habit more attractive than it would be otherwise.
We imitate the habits of three groups in particular:
- The close.
- The many.
- The powerful
Each group offers an opportunity to leverage the 2nd Law of Behavior Change and make our habits more attractive.
- Imitating the Close
Proximity has a powerful effect on our behavior. This is true of the physical environment...but it is also true of the social environment.
One of the most effective things you can do to build better habits is to join a culture where your desired behavior is the normal behavior.
...remaining part of a group after achieving a goal is crucial to maintaining your habits. It's friendship and community that embed a new identity and help behaviors last over the long run.
2. Imitating the Many
The normal behavior of the tribe often overpower the desired behavior of the individual.
3. Imitating the Powerful
We try to copy the behavior of successful people because we desire success ourselves. Many of our daily habits are imitations of people we admire.
Every behavior has a surface level craving and a deeper, underlying motive.
A craving is just a specific manifestation of a deeper underlying motive.
Look at nearly any product that is habit-forming and you'll see that it does not create a new motivation, but rather latches onto the underlying motives of human nature.
Your habits are modern-day solutions to ancient desires. New versions of old vices. The underlying motive behind human behavior remain the same. The specific habits we perform differ based on the period of history.
... our behavior is heavily dependent on how we interpret the events that happen to us, not necessarily the objective reality of the events themselves.
A craving is the sense that something is missing. It is the desire to change you internal state.
Our feeling and emotions tell us whether to hold steady in our current state or to make a change. They help us decide the best course of action.
You can make hard habits more attractive if you can learn to associate them with a positive experience.
... imagine changing just one word: You don't "have" to. You "get" to.
You transition from seeing these behaviors as burdens and turn them into opportunities.
The key point is that both versions of reality are true. You have to do those things, and you also get to do them. We can find evidence for whatever mind-set we choose.
Reframing you habits to highlight their benefits rather than their drawbacks is a fast and lightweight way to reprogram your mind and make a habit seem more attractive.
You can reframe "I am nervous" to "I am excited and I'm getting an adrenaline rush to help me concentrate."
... you can create a motivation ritual. You simply practice associating your habits with something you enjoy, then you can use that cue whenever you need a bit of motivation.
The key to finding and fixing the causes of your bad habits is to reframe the associations you have about them. It's not easy, but if you can reprogram your predictions, you can transform a hard habit into an attractive one.
Action...is the type of behavior that will deliver an outcome.
When preparation becomes a for of procrastination, you need to change something. You don't want to merely be planning. You want to be practicing.
If you want to master a habit, the key is to start with repetition, not perfection. You don't need to map out every feature of a new habit. You just need to practice it. This is the first takeaway of the 3rd Law: you just need to get your reps in.
Habit formation is the process by which a behavior becomes progressively more automatic through repetition. The more you repeat an activity, the more the structure of your brain changes to become efficient at that activity. Neuroscientists call this long-term potentiation, which refers to the strengthening of connections between neurons in the brain based on recent patters of activity. With each repetition, cell-to-cell signaling improves and the neural connections tighten.
... Hebb's Law: "Neurons that fir together wire together."
Each time you repeat an action, you are activating a particular neural circuit associated with that habit. This means that simply putting in your reps is one fo the most critical steps you can take to encoding a new habit.
Automaticity is the ability to perform a behavior without thinking about each step, which occurs when the nonconscious mind takes over.
You need to string together enough successful attempts until the behavior is firmly embedded in your mind and you cross the Habit Line.
To build a habit, you need to practice it. And the most effective way to make practice happen is to adhere to the 3rd Law of Behavior Change: make it easy.
It is human nature to follow the Law of Least Effort, which states that when deciding between two similar options, people will naturally gravitate toward the option that requires the least amount of work.
One of the most effective ways to reduce the friction associated with you habits is to practice environment design.
Habits are easier to build when the fit into the flow of your life.
... when we remove the points of friction that sap our time and energy, we can achieve more with less effort. (This is one reason tidying up can feel so good: we are simultaneously moving forward and lightening the cognitive load our environment places on us.)
If you look at the most habit-forming product, you'll notice that one of the things these goods and services do best is remove little bits of friction from your life.
Much of the battle of building better habits comes down to finding ways to reduce the friction associate with our good habits and increase the friction associate with our bad ones.
Whenever you organize a space for its intended purpose, you are priming to make the next action easy.
You can also invert this principle and prime the environment to make bad behaviors difficult.
Habits are automatic choices that influence the conscious decisions that follow. Yes, a habit can be completed in just a few seconds, but it can also shape the actions that you take for minutes or hours afterward.
... the Two-Minute Rule, which states, "When you start a new habit, it should take less than two minutes to do."
... once you've started doing the right thing, it is much easier to continue doing it. A new habit should not feel like a challenge. The actions that follow can be challenging, but the first two minutes should be easy. What you want is a "gateway habit" that naturally leads you down a more productive path.
You can usually figure out the gateway habits that will lead to your desired outcome by mapping out your goals on a scale from "very easy" to "very hard."
... master the habit of showing up. The truth is, a habit must be established before it can be improved.
The more you ritualize the beginning of a process, the more likely it becomes that you can slip into the state of deep focus that is required to do great things.
It's better to do less than you hoped than to do nothing at all.
Nearly any larger life goal can be transformed into a two-minute behavior.
Sometimes success is less about making good habits easy and more about making bad habits hard.
... make you bad habits more difficult by creating what psychologists call a commitment device.
A commitment device is a choice you make in the present that controls your actions in the future. It is a way to lock in future behavior, bind you to good habits, and restrict you from bad ones.
The key is to change the task such that it requires more work to get our of the good habit than to get started on it.
The best way to break a bad habit is to make it impractical to do. Increase the friction until you don't even have the option to act.
When you automate as much of your life as possible, you can spend your effort on the tasks machines cannot do yet.
... Alfred North Whitehead wrote, "Civilization advances by extending the number of operations we can perform without thinking about them."
We are more likely to repeat a behavior when the experience is satisfying.
... if an experience is not satisfying, we have little reason to repeat it.
... the Cardinal Rule of Behavior Change: What is rewarded is repeated. What is punished is avoided. You learn what to do in the future based on what you were rewarded for doing (or punished for doing) in the past. Positive emotions cultivate habits. Negative emotions destroy them.
The first three laws of behavior change—make it obvious, make it attractive, and make it easy—increase the odds that a behavior will be performed this time. The fourth law of behavior change—make it satisfying—increases the odds that a behavior will be repeated next time. It complete the habit loop.
But there is a trick. We are not looking for just any type of satisfaction. We are looking for immediate satisfaction.
With our bad habits, the immediate outcome usually feels good, but the ultimate outcome feels bad. With good habits, it is the reverse: the immediate outcome is unenjoyable, but the ultimate outcome feels good.
As a general rule, the more immediate pleasure you get from an action, the more strongly you should question whether it aligns with your long-term goals.
What is immediately rewarded is repeated. What is immediately punished is avoided.
... because of how we are wired, most people will spend all day chasing quick hits of satisfaction. The road less traveled is the road of delayed gratification. If you're willing to wait for the rewards, you'll face less competition and often get a bigger payoff. As the saying goes, the last mile is always the least crowded.
The vital thing in getting a habit to stick is to feel successful—even if it's in a small way. The feeling of success is a signal that your habit paid off and that the work was worth the effort.
The ending of any experience is vital because we tend to remember it more than other phases. You want the ending of your habit to be satisfying. The best approach is to use reinforcement, which refers to the process of using an immediate reward to increase the rate of a behavior. Habit stacking... ties your habit to an immediate cue, which makes it obvious when to start. Reinforcement ties your habit to an immediate reward, which makes it satisfying when you finish.
... it is important to select short-term rewards that reinforce your identity rather than ones that conflict with it.
... as intrinsic rewards like a better mood, more energy, and reduced stress kick in, you'll become less concerned with chasing the secondary reward. The identity itself become the reinforcer. You do it because it's who you are and it feels good to be you. The more a habit becomes part of your life, the less you need outside encouragement to follow through. Incentives can start a habit. Identity sustains a habit.
Immediate reinforcement helps maintain motivation in the short term while you're waiting for the long-term rewards to arrive.
Making progress is satisfying, and visual measures... provide clear evidence of your progress.
Recording your last action creates a trigger that can initiate your next one. Habit tracking naturally builds a series of visual cues like the streak of X's on your calendar.
... habit tracking provides visual proof that you are casting votes for the type of person you wish to become, which is a delightful form of immediate and intrinsic gratification.
Measurement is only useful when it guides you and adds context to a larger picture, not when it consumes you.
Just as we are more likely to repeat an experience when the ending is satisfying, we are also more likely to avoid an experience when the ending is painful.
When the consequences are severe, people can learn quickly.
To be productive, the cost of procrastination must be greater than the cost of action.
A habit contract is a verbal or written agreement in which you state your commitment to a particular habit and the punishment that will occur if you don't follow through. Then you find one or two people to act as your accountability partners and sign off on the contract with you.
Habits are easier to perform, and more satisfying to stick with, when they align with your natural inclinations and abilities.
Competence is highly dependent on context.
... you should build habits that work for your personality.
... one of the best ways to ensure your habits remain satisfying over the long-run is to pick behaviors that align with your personality and skills. Work hard on the things that come easy.
... one of the most consistent findings is that the way to maintain motivation and achieve peak levels of desire is to work on tasks of "just manageable difficult."
The Goldilocks Rule states that humans experience peak motivation when working on tasks that are right on the edge of their current abilities. Not too hard. Not too easy. Just right.
When you're starting a new habit, it's important to keep the behavior as easy as possible so you can stick with it even when conditions aren't perfect.
Once a habit has been established, however, it's important to continue to advance in small ways. These little improvements and new challenges keep you engaged. And if you hit the Goldilocks Zone just right, you can achieve a flow state.
A flow state is the experience of being "in the zone" and fully immersed in an activity.
The greatest threat to success is not failure but boredom.
Variable rewards won't create a craving—that is, you can't take reward people are uninterested in, give it to them at a variable interval, and hope it will change their mind—but they are a powerful way to amplify the craving we already experience because they reduce boredom.
The sweet spot of desire occurs at a 50/50 split between success and failure. Half of the time you get what you want. Half of the time you don't. You need just enough "winning" to experience satisfaction and just enough "wanting" to experience desire. this one fo the benefits of following the Goldilocks Rule. If you're already interested in a habit, working on challenges of just manageable difficulty is a good way to keep things interesting.
The only way to become excellent is to be endlessly fascinate by doing the same thing over and over. You have to fall in love with boredom.
Reflection and review enables the long-term improvement of all habits because it make you aware of your mistakes and helps you consider possible paths for improvement.
The more you let a single belief define you, the less capable you are of adapting when life challenges you.
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